Blueprint for Learning,
Memory, and Performance Improvements
Using Learning Orientations to Guide Instructional Design,
Intervention, Practice/Feedback, Re-enforcements,
Implementation, and Evaluation
Topics & Issues
|Prefer loosely structured,
mentoring environments that promote challenging goals,
discovery, and self-managed learning.
semi-structured, coaching environments that stimulate
personal value and provide creative interaction.
|Prefer simple, safe, structured
environments that help learners achieve easy learning
goals in a linear fashion.
|Set and accomplish personal
short- and long-term challenging goals that may not align
with goals set by others; maximize effort to reach
|Set and achieve short-term,
task-oriented goals that meet average-to-high standards;
situationally minimize efforts and standards to reach
assigned or negotiated standards.
|Follow explicit steps to accomplish simple, task-oriented goals assigned by otherstry to please and conform; maximize efforts in supportive environments with safe standards.
|Self-motivated to assume learning
responsibility and self-direct goals, learning, progress,
Experience frustration if restricted or
given little learning autonomy.
|Situationally self-motivated to assume learning responsibility in areas of interest. Will willingly give up control and extend less effort for topics of less interest or in restrictive environments.
|Cautiously motivated to assume little decision-making responsibility, self-direct learning as little as possible, and prefer guidance and assisted learning.
|Commit great effort to discover,
elaborate, and build new knowledge and meaning.
|Selectively commit measured effort to assimilate and use relevant knowledge and meaning.
|Commit careful, measured effort to accept and reproduce knowledge to meet external requirements and expectations.
|Emphasize the priority of the whole over its parts.
|Explore the priority of the whole over its parts.
|Consider the priority of the whole over its parts.
|Use skilled, confident determination, analysis, intellectual criteria, evaluation, interpretation, judgment and reflection about meaning and significance of evidence and what is observed to accept or reject conclusions.
|Consider simple to complex problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences. Increase effort to learn and effectively use logical inquiry, reasoning, intellectual criteria and reflection.
|Be perceptive. Discover new information. Think clearly and logically, analyze and interpret information, evaluate ideas and draw inferences through judgment and reasoning. Consider techniques for critical thinking.
|Prefer case studies and complex,
whole-to-part, problem solving opportunities.
|Prefer competitive part-to-whole
|Prefer scaffolded support for simple, guided problem solving.
|Actively control learning by using reflective thinking to consider and assess what is known and identify and close any gaps to what is needed to improve learning.
|Explore ways to control learning by actively using reflective thinking to consider and assess what is known and identify and close any gaps to what is needed to improve learning.
|Learn reflective thinking techniques to consider and assess what is known and identify and close any gaps to what is needed to improve learning.
|Open learning interface for high
stimulation and processing capacity
|Hands-on learning interface for
medium stimulation and processing capacity
|Consistent and simple interface for minimal stimulation and processing capacity.
|Prefer occasional mentoring and
interaction for achieving goals (MENTORING).
|Prefer continual coaching and
interaction for achieving goals (COACHING)
|Prefer continual guidance and
reinforcement for achieving short-term goals (GUIDING)
|Prefer inferential feedback.
|Prefer concise feedback.
|Prefer explicit feedback.
|Prefer open-ended, dynamic
groups; balanced emphasis on social-emotional needs and
high-standard task completion
|Prefer semi-structured, purposeful groups; emphasis on task completion.
|Prefer well-structured and safe groups; emphasis on social-emotional needs.
encourages positive dissonance; emphasizes efficacy;
numerous cycles of brainstorming, reflection, and
self-critique; group prefers shared leadership;
encourages intra- and inter-group interactions
|Task-oriented; compromise-seeking; emphasizes efficiency; group prefers strong internal leadership; encourages intra-group interactions, avoids inter-group interactions.
|Completion-oriented; consensus-seeking; emphasizes compliance; group prefers strong external leadership; minimizes intra- and inter-group interactions.
|Short, to the point, summary
linked to more detail if necessary
|Medium, moderate explanations.
|Longer, detailed explanations, in a step wise approach.
|One good example and one bad example.
|A few good and bad examples presented with increasing difficulty.
|Multiple good and bad examples presented with increasing difficulty.
|Holistic, specific information needed to solve a problem.
|Specific interests concerning short-term projects and tasks.
|To fill a requirement.
|Prefer freedom to construct own content structure.
|Prefer a general instruction, limited ability to reorganize.
|Prefer to let others decide content structure.
|Hypertext, sorting by meta-tags, precise access.
|Semi-linear, logical branching, access by subtopic.
|Linear, page-turner representations general access.
|Usually prefers to exceed stated requirements and assignments in pursuit of personal goals.
|Usually prefers to fulfill requirements but no more. Will do more when assignments are in an area of keen interest.
|May not meet minimal requirements without guided assistance.
|Asks probing, in-depth questions about content.
|Asks questions to complete assignments, too busy taking notes.
|Asks mechanistic questions about assignments.
|Innovators - Find the mistakes and make recommendations for improvement and further implementation.
|Implementers - Refine implementation and make recommendations for sustainment.
|Sustainers - Refine implementation and make recommendations about gaps, difficulties, and risks.
Learning Strategies and Differences Described for Three Learning Orientations
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