Learners situationally fall along the
continuum of learning orientations. Depending on the
specific learning circumstances, a learner may cover a
full range of one learning orientation or move downwards
or upwards in response to negative or positive responses,
conditions, resources, results, expectations, and
experiences. Most learners will respond with some level
of resistance in negative environments. Upward change
into new learning orientations requires greater effort
and learner control and stronger intentions, feelings,
and beliefs about learning.
learners are lower-risk, semi-skilled
to skilled learners that rationally, systematically, and
capably use psychological processes, strategies,
preferences, and self-regulated learning skills to
achieve learning objectives and tasks. In contrast to
transforming learners, performing learners are more
selective about how hard they work on learning goals.
They prefer focusing on the process and steps towards attaining worthwhile goals.
Performing learners more often
prefer short-term thinking that helps them explore
the details and follow the best steps towards
task and project completion.
appreciate accuracy and quality
and may take fewer risks and avoid mistakes and
challenging or difficult goals to accomplish tasks correctly and efficiently.
(e.g., guided discovery) and team or group relationships,
They prefer relying on available external
resources, social influences, and interaction or collaboration
to accomplish a task or common goal.
need an important reason or seek
benefits (that they value) to push themselves
toward more intentional performance (e.g.,
greater effort and higher standards). They may
acknowledge that they may limit or
constrain learning effort (e.g., they do not have
enough time) by only meeting stated objectives,
getting the grade, or avoiding exploratory steps
beyond given learning requirements.
To improve, performing learners should
acquire more abstract and holistic thinking, strategic
planning, and long-term goal setting skills. They may decide to work harder
to achieve more challenging goals or acquire new skills
(if they perceived greater value) in areas not typically of interest.